Understanding the 5 Components of Networking

Networking has been getting modern with time, and the thing which is helping to develop the networking field is the components of networking. We can say the components of networking are the pillar of networking. Every electronic device with a mac address can belong in networking. It is easy to learn about the MAC address of any device using Mac Lookup, which helps to differentiate the normal electronic device from the electronic networking device.

There are two types of networking components: hardware and software components. Hardware components such as a central processing unit (CPU), random access memory (RAM), monitor, mouse, keyboard, computer data storage, graphics card, sound card, speakers, and motherboard, helps to control the functionality of the computer. At the same time, the software components, including the operating system, are responsible for the internal working of the computers.

Let’s get to the details of the components of networking so that we can get a better understanding of how computers work.

Hardware Networking Component 

A computer’s networking hardware consists of physical components that allow it to be connected to another computer. This approach allows the user to access multiple computers from a single server. Four hardware components help to create a network between devices, each with different features.

Client Server

In client-server networking, clients and servers are used in a network configuration. This client-server networking model can be applied to LANs (local area networks) and the Internet. The client-server model is commonly used by web browsers, servers, DNS (Domain Name Systems), and FTP (File Transfer Protocol) clients.

Client-server networking is a common feature of computers, smartphones, and tablets connected to the Internet daily. In client-server networking, the client devices request access to a webpage’s content, which is then delivered by a website server.


A peer-to-peer network allows computers to share resources and data among themselves. It is a type of network in which computers can communicate and share content stored on or attached to their computers. 

In addition, it is one of the most accessible types of architecture to create. Peer-to-peer networks have the following characteristics:

  • Individual users control data and resources on computers.
  • Users of operating systems can create accounts for use by other users when they connect to their computers.
  • Passwords, accounts, and permissions are stored in a local database and are used when someone connects to your computer.

Transmission Media

A transmission medium is a route through which they transmit information from a source to a receiver. In the physical layer, transmission mediums lie below the physical layer, and the physical layer regulates them. Transmission mediums can also be referred to as communication channels.

Moreover, the transmission media is categorized into two types:

  • Guided
  • Unguided

Guided Transmission Media

Guided transmission media can also be described as bounded media and wired media. Guided signals are so named because they act as a physical link between the transmitter and the receiver. 

In guided media, there are some limitations because of its physical wiring, but it also has some advantages.


  • Secure, high-speed connections
  • Used for shorter distances

The following are some of the most popular guided transmission media:

  • Twisted Pair Cable
  • Coaxial Cable
  • Optical Fibre Cable
  • Stripline cable
  • Microstrip line cable
  • Magnetic Media
  • Power Lines

Unguided Transmission Media

In an unguided transmission, it sent electromagnetic waves without needing a physical medium. In unguided electromagnetic transmission, electromagnetic energy travels through the air. It has also known as this type of transmission media as wireless or unbounded.

There are several properties of unguided media, including:


  • The sender and receiver nodes are not in direct communication.
  • Allow more long-distance transmission.

Unguided transmission media can be classified into the following types:

  • Infrared
  • Radio waves
  • Microwaves
  • Light Transmission

Connecting Devices

Networking devices are the hardware devices used to connect mobiles, computers, printers, and other electronic devices to a network. To connect these devices, there is a specific address named MAC address. 

MAC addresses are unique 48-bit identification numbers embedded in NICs (network interface cards) during manufacturing. Every networking device has its own MAC address. Without a MAC address, you cannot send and receive the data. 

In addition, many internet users want to know their MAC address; there are many ways to MAC lookup, such as you can check your MAC address manually or using an online MAC lookup tool. 

Moreover, there are many ways to connect to other networking devices. 

Network Interface Card (NIC)

Your computer is connected to a network through a Network Interface Card (NIC). The cards are plugged into a networking device to connect to the internet.


Transceivers are devices that connect a computer to a network cable. NICs (Network Interface Cards) are developed from transceivers.

Transmission, reception, and collision detection are all performed by the transceiver. A transceiver cable connects the transceiver to the station and provides disconnect paths for sending and receiving data.

There are two types of transceivers: external and internal. An external transceiver is installed adjacent to the media. An internal transceiver is installed on the network interface card (NIC).


A router is a device that connects two networks. Routing devices are used for inter-networking between LANs that use different protocols. The most straightforward function accepts packets from one network and transmits them to another. 

The routers contain both hardware and software. Computer servers or disconnected computers can be used as the hardware. The hardware includes a physical connection to multiple networks as part of the inter-network.

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